Despite television coverage of the ceremonies, some felt that too few Parisians took part in the observances. Although 200 people gathered close to the Bataclan to watch the ceremony, at the other sites, fewer people came.
But while the sharpest memories of the attacks may be receding for some, much daily life in Paris remains marked by reminders of the threat of terrorism.
Many of the attackers had traveled to Syria or Iraq before returning to France, where they and others presented an essentially homegrown security threat, however manipulated or inspired from abroad.
The Interior Ministry still describes the threat of terrorist attacks as extremely high, and police patrols in Paris are far more routine than before. Many tourist attractions are guarded by heavily armed officers, and 7,000 soldiers have been deployed across France to sites that the government believes may be targets for attack.
Even so, the attempted attacks have shown no sign of abating. So far this year, 13 attacks have been stopped, according to the Interior Minister Gérard Collomb, including one which involved conspirators in France and Switzerland.
Despite those successes, three people were killed by terrorists in France in 2017: two civilians in Marseille and one police officer patrolling on the Champs-Élysées.
The attempted attacks have gone on despite a two-year state of emergency that gave the police extraordinary powers to detain people even if there was not enough evidence to charge them.
The state of emergency ended on Nov. 1, but only after the National Assembly approved legislation in October that enshrined many of its provisions into law.
In 2016, the French Parliament had approved another sweeping law that allows the police and prosecutors to use electronic eavesdropping technology previously limited to the intelligence services, including hidden cameras and access to electronic data.
In an interview this past weekend with The Journal du Dimanche, Mr. Collomb, the interior minister, said that France was better armed today to counter terrorists than it had been in 2015.
But, he said, the threat had changed from a large network closely directed by the Islamic State to “little groups here and there in our country, who have plans to carry out violence but do not have links with each other.”
While the would-be attackers are less centrally organized than the large network that carried out the attacks in and around Paris in 2015 and in Belgium in 2016, they are “also harder to detect,” Mr. Collomb said.
One source of relief, he noted, was that fewer French citizens who had gone to fight with the Islamic State in Syria have returned than was initially anticipated, he said.
According to the ministry’s estimates, 1,700 French citizens went to the Iraqi-Syrian areas controlled by the Islamic State since the beginning of the fighting there in 2012.
Of those, 281 are presumed to be dead, and 302 have returned. Among the returnees, 120 men and 14 women are in prison, and the others are being followed by the security services, he said.
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