He ordered Philippine troops and the air force to Marawi to try to dislodge the militants. The battle forced an estimated 200,000 residents to flee Marawi, the only predominantly Muslim city in the Philippines, a mostly Roman Catholic country.
Military officers leading the assault on the ground have said that the militants were entrenched in central Marawi, where they are believed to be holding out with enough firepower to withstand the military’s air bombardments and its ground assaults. The insurgents are also believed to be holding dozens of civilians captive, including a Catholic priest who had appealed to the government to stop its air assaults.
The military said on Monday that 56 days of fighting had killed at least 97 government troops and 45 civilians. At least 405 extremists had also died, including several foreign fighters, the government said, leaving behind about 60 rebels.
Isnilon Hapilon, the head of Abu Sayyaf and the acknowledged leader of the Islamic State in the Philippines, is believed to be in Marawi leading his men in the fighting, backed by a contingent from the Maute group along with allied foreign fighters.
Senator Antonio Trillanes, a Duterte critic, said the move to extend martial law was “totally not justified.”
The military said that “the Mautes are down to 60,” Mr. Trillanes said. “So in other words, the people of Mindanao would be inconvenienced by martial law just to neutralize the 60 Mautes who are cornered in Marawi? That’s a whimsical misuse of power.”
He said the call to extend martial law showed Mr. Duterte’s “authoritarian tendencies.”
Loretta Ann Rosales, a former human rights commissioner who was tortured during the period of martial law under the late dictator Ferdinand Marcos, noted that the announcement came after days of repeated assurances that the end of fighting was near, with the military’s mopping-up operations nearly complete.
She said the call to extend martial law reflected “a narrow, militarist mind-set that sees the restoration of peace and stability through simplistic aerial and sniper attacks.”
She said the only ones who would benefit from an extension of martial law were those who believed in “self-perpetuation” — an apparent dig at Mr. Duterte, an admitted admirer of Marcos who last year allowed the dictator’s family to transfer his remains to the national Heroes’ Cemetery in Manila with full military honors.
Mr. Abella, the president’s spokesman, tried to deflect such criticisms on Tuesday, saying that the primary objective of extending martial law was to allow a military solution to proceed “unhampered by deadlines, and to focus more on the liberation of Marawi and its rehabilitation and rebuilding.”
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