Mr. Macron “now stands as a counterweight to Trump,” Mr. Fried said. The combination of a seasoned, dominant figure like Ms. Merkel and a young, dynamic newcomer like Mr. Macron, he said, creates an “implicit challenge and perhaps an explicit challenge to the Trump ideology.”
Mr. Trump called Mr. Macron on Monday to congratulate him, but the first real test of their relationship could come in just two weeks when Mr. Trump makes his first trip to Europe as president to attend a NATO summit meeting in Brussels and a Group of 7 summit meeting in Sicily. Mr. Macron, who will be inaugurated on Sunday, plans to attend both meetings.
One area where Mr. Trump and Mr. Macron may clash is Russia.
Where Mr. Trump has spoken flatteringly of Mr. Putin and vowed to improve Russian-American relations, Mr. Macron has taken a tougher line. Mr. Putin hosted Ms. Le Pen in Moscow during the campaign in a virtual endorsement, and the Russian government is suspected in the hacking of the Macron campaign and the leak of documents, an episode that echoed last year’s Russian meddling in the American campaign.
The French election followed contests in Austria, where voters rejected the far-right presidential candidate Norbert Hofer in December, and the Netherlands, where the far-right party of Geert Wilders fell short of expectations in parliamentary elections in March.
Ms. Le Pen had sought to capitalize on the momentum from Mr. Trump’s victory in November. She was among the first foreign leaders to congratulate him, and she made an unannounced but highly visible visit to Trump Tower shortly before his inauguration, though she did not see the president-elect.
By spring, however, she was distancing herself, rarely mentioning him.
Mr. Macron, by contrast, aired an advertisement showing American pundits last year predicting a decisive election defeat for Mr. Trump to persuade his own supporters not to take victory for granted in Sunday’s second-round runoff.
For his part, Mr. Trump made little secret of his preference in the French contest.
After a police officer was shot and killed on the Champs-Élysées in Paris just before the first round of voting, Mr. Trump suggested it would help Ms. Le Pen’s campaign, which focused in part on what she said was the threat of foreigners allowed into France. “Another terrorist attack in Paris,” he wrote on Twitter. “The people of France will not take much more of this. Will have a big effect on presidential election!”
In case anyone doubted whom he meant, Mr. Trump specifically mentioned Ms. Le Pen in a subsequent interview. “I think that it’ll probably help her because she is the strongest on borders and she is the strongest on what’s been going on in France,” he told The Associated Press.
On Sunday, as Mr. Macron swamped Ms. Le Pen with 66 percent of the vote, Mr. Trump turned gracious. “Congratulations to Emmanuel Macron on his big win today as the next President of France,” he wrote on Twitter. “I look very much forward to working with him!”
Mr. Trump has made clear that for him, international relations are built at least in part on his personal chemistry with foreign leaders. If he can put aside his vitriolic attacks on China to forge what he now calls a strong relationship with President Xi Jinping of China, it seems plausible that Mr. Trump could find common ground with Mr. Macron. He could focus on their similarities rather than their differences; neither one had ever been elected before, and each ran against the establishments of both mainstream parties in their countries.
Besides, while Mr. Trump surely would have interpreted a victory by Ms. Le Pen as a validation of his own politics, she would not necessarily have been an easy partner for him, given that her positions on key issues would have created a less stable situation for the United States. She had vowed to pull out of the NATO alliance and the European Union.
Moreover, some analysts said it would be too much to say that the French voted to reject Mr. Trump, given the many economic and security issues that confront France. “I don’t think it’s a repudiation of Trump,” said Benjamin Haddad, a research fellow at the Hudson Institute in Washington. “I do think it’s a political answer to the challenge of populism.”
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