“This G.O.P. tax scam is simply theft — monumental, brazen theft from the American middle class and from every person who aspires to reach it,” said Representative Nancy Pelosi of California, the House Democratic leader, who called the tax plan “a vote to install a permanent plutocracy in our nation.”
The House voted 227 to 203 to pass the bill, with 12 Republicans voting against it and no Democrats voting for it. Eleven of the 12 Republicans were from California, New Jersey and New York, states that would be hit hard by a provision in the bill limiting the deduction for state and local taxes.
Under the final tax bill, the corporate tax rate would be cut to 21 percent, from the current 35 percent, a move that Republicans are betting will increase economic growth, create jobs and raise wages. Individuals would also see tax cuts, including a top rate of 37 percent, down from 39.6 percent. The size of inheritances shielded from estate taxation would double, to $22 million for married couples, and owners of pass-through businesses, whose profits are taxed through the individual code, would be able to deduct 20 percent of their business income.
But the individual tax cuts would expire after 2025, a step that Republicans took to comply with budget rules, which do not allow the package to add to the deficit after a decade.
The tax changes will affect businesses and individuals unevenly, with winners and losers often being determined by industry or geography.
The reach of the bill extends beyond taxes. It strikes at a core component of the Affordable Care Act, eliminating the requirement that most people have health coverage or pay a penalty, a move that the Congressional Budget Office projects will increase premiums for people who buy insurance. It also would open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska to oil and gas drilling, a defeat for environmentalists who have fought against such action for decades.
The last-minute parliamentary stumble involved several small components of the bill, according to Senate Democrats, including a provision that would have allowed the use of 529 savings accounts for homeschooling expenses and part of the criteria to be used to determine whether colleges and universities are subject to an excise tax imposed on their investment income. The parliamentarian even ruled against the bill’s name, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act, since the provision creating the name did not influence spending or revenue, as each provision must under Senate budget rules.
The chief tax writer in the House, Representative Kevin Brady, Republican of Texas and the chairman of the Ways and Means Committee, was unruffled.
“Our belief is, ‘So what?’” Mr. Brady said on Fox News. “If we can get to vote twice on cutting taxes for families and small businesses, glad to do it.”
Republicans in Congress moved with remarkable speed in their bid to enact the biggest tax overhaul since 1986, unveiling legislation to rewrite the tax code, marshaling support for their effort and devising a compromise between the House and Senate in under two months.
The success within reach would be a stark contrast with their attempt this year to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act, a quest that was encumbered by internal divisions among Republicans and ultimately ended in humiliating failure.
“People wanted to get it done,” Senator John Cornyn of Texas, the No. 2 Senate Republican, said of the tax rewrite. “That’s the single biggest difference.”
It would also give Mr. Trump a signature accomplishment as the first year of his presidency nears an end. After the House vote, Mr. Trump took to Twitter to congratulate House Republican leaders as well as “all great House Republicans who voted in favor of cutting your taxes!”
In recent days, critics of the tax bill have argued that it will enrich a number of Republican lawmakers who supported it. They pointed specifically to Senator Bob Corker of Tennessee and Mr. Trump himself, who both hold real estate investments that will get favorable tax treatment through the legislation.
The White House press secretary, Sarah Huckabee Sanders, pushed back on the notion that Mr. Trump would save money as a result of the tax plan. “I know that there are a number of provisions that would negatively impact the president personally,” Ms. Sanders said.
At the Capitol, the mood among Republicans was largely triumphant. But Democrats were already looking ahead with a focus on next year’s midterm elections, when they hope to wrest control of the House and Senate. Polls have shown that the Republican tax overhaul is unpopular with the public, and Democrats hope to turn the biggest Republican legislative achievement into a liability in next year’s races.
Senator Chuck Schumer of New York, the Democratic leader, warned that Republicans would come to regret rushing the tax bill through Congress on their own.
“This tax bill will be an anchor around the ankles of every Republican,” Mr. Schumer said.
Protesters also made themselves heard on Tuesday, interrupting speeches by Mr. Ryan and Senator Orrin G. Hatch of Utah, the chairman of the Senate Finance Committee. The Capitol Police reported a number of arrests.
But Republicans predicted that their support of the tax bill would be vindicated as voters see its effects.
“I frankly think Democrats have overplayed their hand,” Mr. Brady told reporters, “because when people back home and our local businesses see the tax relief, they’re going to know they weren’t really told the truth by the opponents of tax reform.”
While the effect of the bill on people’s bank accounts and on the broader economy remains to be seen, there was little debate on Tuesday about the magnitude of what Republicans were on the verge of accomplishing.
Bob Packwood, the former Republican senator from Oregon who helped lead the 1986 tax effort, said that this year’s bill was at least as sweeping as the one that Ronald Reagan signed into law 31 years ago, even though the bills had different goals.
“They have achieved things that I was unable to achieve,” Mr. Packwood said.
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