“It can take about a minute or so for it to work,” Dr. Daviss said. “If it hasn’t worked within two minutes, the recommendation is usually to take a second dose, which is why it is a two-pack.”
Some people who have overdosed on more powerful drugs like fentanyl need multiple doses.
What if that fails?
If the person is not breathing, or if their breathing is shallow, perform rescue breathing. If nothing has changed and there is no pulse, the person needs CPR from a trained bystander and emergency medical care.
Where do you get naloxone?
In many states, naloxone is available without a prescription at pharmacy chains including CVS and Walgreens, which owns Duane Reade. It typically costs between $90 and $150 over the counter, though it is often covered by insurance plans. In some places, a prescription is required.
The drug is also available in many states at little to no cost at health departments, syringe exchanges, substance abuse treatment centers and community organizations.
There, it is often distributed in zippered pouches called kits. A kit often also includes gloves, a face mask with a mouth shield to help restore breathing, and instructions.
Naloxone Access Locator | Treatment Locator
How much does naloxone cost?
It depends. The type of naloxone you can get often differs by state, pharmacy and what insurance you have. Many insurances cover naloxone, so you can ask what your share of the cost would be. Some public health programs also offer ways for people to get it for free or at low cost, as do naloxone’s manufacturers in some cases.
“There is wide variation in the cost of naloxone,” said Kemp Chester, associate director at the Office of National Drug Control Policy at the White House. “It can be as cheap as $35 and as expensive as $100-plus.”
Can you give someone too much naloxone?
No. Naloxone is not addictive. It does force people into opioid withdrawal, so the patient may be extremely uncomfortable and react aggressively.
But if you give it to someone and it turns out they are not overdosing, don’t worry. “It is not harmful to give it to someone who is not undergoing an overdose,” Mr. Chester said.
Naloxone only works for overdoses from opioids, not overdoses from other types of drugs.
Do experts think this will save lives or help end the opioid crisis?
Naloxone can save someone’s life during an overdose, but it is not a cure for opioid addiction. Dr. Daviss said that a number of people who go to an emergency room after an overdose will die from a second, third or fourth overdose within a year. “You’ve got to hook them up into treatment,” he said. “Medication-assisted treatment is the way to go.”
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